Hierarchical Digital Simulation

   1.  The Digital LOG simulator is capable of simulating hierarchical
       designs.  That is, you can draw a complicated circuit on one
       page, then include any number of "instances" of that circuit
       on other pages in the form of single LOG gates.  While this
       feature is specific to the digital simulator (AnaLOG has no
       hierarchy, for example), the LOGNTK network file generator also
       understands hierarchy using the same notation and conventions.

   2.  The simplest way to build hierarchically is by using the
       standard digital "instance" gates, INST1 through INST5.  These
       gates look like blocks of various sizes, with connection pins
       all along their rims.  They also have little arrows so you can
       tell if they have been rotated or mirrored.  (NOTE: There are
       also "general-purpose" instance gates GINST1 through GINST5
       in the library.  They are not digital gates and the digital
       simulator will not understand them!  These gates are for use
       only with the LOGNTK program.)

   3.  To create a new gate from a circuit diagram, simply put your
       diagram into one of LOG's nine editing pages.  Now, take an
       INSTn gate of an appropriate size and add it to your diagram.
       Connect wires to the gate from the diagram in the same way
       you plan to connect the gate "in real life".  For example,
       you might have three input wires on the left edge, one output
       on the right edge, and a clock input on the bottom edge.

   4.  Exact positions don't matter for the instance gates.  They
       simply divide your connections into four classes, "top",
       "bottom", "left" and "right", and count the wires along
       each edge.  When you use the gate in another circuit, you
       must make the same number of connections on each edge.  The
       order of the wires you connect matters, but not their exact
       positions along the edge.

   5.  Create a label (by pressing the "l" key) which is the
       name you want to give this circuit, in double-quotes: "Joe".
       This label can be located anywhere on the page that contains
       the definition of "Joe".  (An alternate, older notation is
       to make a label of the form:   .)

   6.  Switch to the CNFG (configuring) gate-tapping mode, then
       tap the instance gate and enter the same name in the
       "Instance of" field: Joe.  Quotes are optional, and
       upper/lower case don't matter.  Since this gate has the
       same name as the page it is on, it becomes a "template" or
       "example" gate.  You now have a complete definition for
       your new gate.

   7.  To use this gate, create another instance gate on a different
       page and configure its "Instance of" attribute to have the
       name of the definition you want to use.  You do not need to
       use the same size or shape of instance gate as you did before.
       As long as you make the right number of connections, it will
       work.  Instance gates will be dim until they are "happy", that
       is, correctly connected and configured in order to match their
       (also correct and complete) definition.

   8.  If the generic instance gates are too boring, you can create your
       own instance gate, with any picture you like, using the LOGED
       program.  The easiest way is to copy a gate like INST1 from the
       "log.gate" file (ask your local maintainer) into your own private
       gate file, then throw away its picture and draw your own.  You can
       use this gate in just the same way as the standard instance gates,
       except that typically you will only include as many pins on the gate
       as you actually plan to use.

   9.  If you don't like template gates, you can instead use labels
       containing "port lists."  This works well only for instance
       gates you have drawn yourself.  Pins on a gate are numbered
       from 1 to N, the total number of pins.  Include in your
       definition, instead of the template or example gate,
       a label of the form:    where "A B C D" is
       a list of TO/FROM signal names.  In this example, A will be
       associated with pin 1 of the instance gate, B with pin 2,
       etc.  The port list must have exactly the right number of
       names.  In general, port lists are more awkward to use than
       templates.  They exist mostly for historical reasons only.

  10.  If you run out of pages you might want to put more than one
       definition on a single page.  Simply enclose each definition
       in a dashed box (press the "b" key to draw one of those).
       When Digital LOG looks for the "Joe" label to find the
       definition called Joe, and that label is inside a dashed box,
       then it considers only the things on that page which lie inside
       the box to be part of that definition.  Since each page can be
       scrolled essentially infinitely far, there is plenty of room
       for all the definitions you need.

  11.  Instances may be nested.  The definition for "A" can include
       instance gates for definition "B"---as long as "B" does not
       include instances of "A"!  Aside from circular references,
       any combination is allowed.  (The template gate is a special
       kind of "circular reference" which is excused.)

  12.  If you include switches or keypads in your definition, they
       will be propagated to all instances.  For example, if you make
       a definition with a switch set to "0", then the equivalent
       node inside every instance will also be "0".  If you flip the
       switch, every instance of that definition will simultaneously
       switch along with it.  LED's and other "display" gates have
       no effect inside hierarchical definitions.

  13.  If the definition includes a label of the form:  
       then gate types A, B, and C are ignored if they appear in the
       definition.  Every definition effectively includes the
       command .  The word "Inert" and the names of
       the gates are case-insensitive.

  14.  Digital hierarchy works by compiling the behavioral descriptions
       of all the gates in the definition into one big program which
       simulates the instance gates.  Most gates' programs are written
       purely in this language, which is described in the documentation
       for the LOGED program.  However, some gates, such as the 8K static
       RAM, are defined by Pascal procedures instead.  The digital
       hierarchy compiler can not compile these gates, and will display
       an error message if you try to use one in a definition.  Nearly
       every SSI- and MSI-level gate in the standard library is written
       purely in LOGED-language, though, so this is not often an issue.

  15.  Every time you make any change to the definition, Digital LOG must
       "recompile" the definition.  If the definition is large, this can
       take time.  While you are editing a definition, you may wish to
       turn simulation off (press the "o" key).  No digital gate
       definitions will be recompiled until you turn the simulator back

  16.  To gain more control over the digital hierarchy compiler, include
       a DIGH gate in your definition.  The DIGH gate displays the status
       of the compilation of the definition it is in, and also has
       controls that affect the kind of compilation that is performed.
       You can see the results of the compilation by pressing Shift-D
       (the DEFINE command) and tapping on any relevant instance gate
       (including the template).

  17.  Normally, Digital LOG applies many optimization steps when compiling
       a definition which make the resulting instance program simpler.
       Depending on what is in the definition, optimization can make the
       gate substantially faster to simulate, both by making the overall
       simulator faster, and by reducing the propagation delay of the gate.
       Optimization may not be safe for definitions that include race
       conditions or other effects dependent on exact gate delays; also, it
       may be slow for large definitions.  You can configure the DIGH gate
       (by tapping it while in CNFG mode, on the blue border of the gate)
       to specify optimization only on request, in which case you must
       touch the "Optimize" button on the DIGH gate in order to optimize
       the definition.

  18.  The DIGH gate's configuration screen also has a switch to disable
       delay-folding optimizations; with these disabled, gate delay
       characteristics of the defining circuit are exactly modelled,
       with only simple local optimizations performed.

  19.  Another useful optimization for instance programs involves the
       FORCEDRV gate, which looks like a little diamond.  Placing this
       diamond on any wire in a definition tells the digital instance
       compiler to assume this node will always be driven with a "1" or
       "0" during operation, that is, it will never be left floating.
       You can still leave one of these nodes unconnected if you wish,
       but the simulator will no longer guarantee that the results will
       be the same as for original definition circuit.  In some cases
       the presence of FORCEDRV's allows LOG to create a much more
       compact and efficient instance program.  FORCEDRV's are ignored
       if the optimizer is turned off.

  20.  Configuring DIGH lets you control other aspects of the hierarchy
       compiler.  In particular, you can set the "Dump mode" to "Write",
       then specify the name of a file.  Then, if you touch "Write" on the
       DIGH gate at some later time, the definition will be recompiled and
       written into a file which LOGED can read.  This allows you to
       convert your definition into a permanent gate in the library.
       To configure the DIGH gate, touch around the blue-colored edges of
       the gate, away from the buttons in the center of the gate. WARNING:
       converting definitions into permanent gates is buggy, and is not
       recommended. Expect this bug to be fixed in an upcoming release.

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